In the automotive world, "tuning" can mean several things. A "tuner car" is one that's had its OEM parts replaced with aftermarket ones for performance reasons. A "tune-up" is a
kind of preventative maintenance where basic parts are replaced and cleaned to keep the car running at peak performance.
But in the aftermarket community, "tuning" is all about making adjustments to your engine via the engine control unit
(ECU). ECU tuning involves tweaking things like the air, fuel, and spark settings for optimal performance. Some tuners
have certain preset tunes or let you load in a custom tune.
Tuning isn’t necessary for stock cars. It’s really only when you start adding performance mods that tuning becomes
beneficial. If done properly, engine tuning can help you recalibrate your engine for peak performance.
Evolution of Engine Tuning
Back when cars had carburetors, enthusiasts tuned their engines by turning a bunch of screws to adjust the air-fuel
mixture. But when the energy crisis arrived in the 1970s, manufacturers started using carburetor limiter caps to prevent
tampering and keep emissions low. This kept gearheads from being able to tune their engines for better performance.
Introduction of the ECU
The push for better fuel efficiency led to the introduction of engine control modules. These early ECUs monitored the
amount of oxygen coming in and out of the engine. The signal was then sent to a solenoid that controlled how much air
and fuel entered the carburetor for the best air-fuel ratio. If you wanted to tune or change the ratio, you had to
reprogram or “trick” the computer.
The ECU used to only control the fuel mixture, but they’ve progressed over the years. Modern ECUs are little computers
that gather data from sensors all around the car, including wheel speed sensors, O2 sensors, temperature sensors, and
engine sensors. ECUs interpret all this information to control everything from throttle position and ignition timing to variable valve
timing and your vehicle’s top speed.
The ECU also identifies problems as it gathers massive amounts of data. As ECUs began to get more complex, manufacturers
started adding diagnostic ports so it was easier to tell why the engine light was on.
At first, carmakers could use whatever type of port they wanted. You might’ve had to connect pins to the port or turn a
screw in the ECU. The warning light would blink out a code, which you’d have to look up to figure out the issue. The
need for a standardized diagnostic port and trouble codes was apparent.
Eventually, the government created a standard diagnostic system so they could better monitor emissions and fuel
efficiency. It was called the On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) system. Fast forward to 1996, and every car had a universal OBD
II port. This made it easy for anyone to plug in an OBD reader and view data from the ECU.
OBD readers also made it possible to pinpoint a malfunctioning sensor or other issue through DTC codes. OBD readers don’t change the ECU’s settings, but they can help you keep track of performance after a tune.
Powertrain Control Modules
As technology progressed, auto manufacturers began adding transmission control modules to cars. They were eventually
paired with the ECU in the same chip, known as powertrain control modules. But nowadays people mainly refer to them just
as the ECU.
How ECU Tuners Work
Old-school chip tuning involved replacing a chip in the ECU that was loaded with different software. But the OBD II port
made tuning even easier. Modern tuning devices just plug into the OBD II port and allow you to install new software to
alter your engine’s settings. Today, engine tuning is often referred to as remapping, reprogramming, or flashing.
ECU tuners reprogram the car’s computer to adjust certain variables to widen the peak performance curves of your engine.
Here’s how they can affect some of the most common variables.
Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR)
For an engine to make power, it needs air, fuel, and spark. Once you start adding aftermarket parts, the air-fuel ratio
(AFR) might need to be recalibrated. ECU tuners let you adjust the AFR to get the best performance possible.
When the air-fuel mixture burns completely during combustion, it’s known as the stoichiometric ratio. If there’s too
much fuel, the mixture is rich. Not enough fuel, and the ratio is lean. So if your engine is burning too rich or too
lean, then you can use an engine tuner to make adjustments as needed. A slightly rich AFR usually yields the most power.
Adjusting the ignition timing, or spark timing, is one of the most important aspects of engine tuning. The ECU controls
the ignition timing in most modern engines. It determines when the spark plug fires during the end of the compression
Ignition timing is dependent upon a variety of factors including the air-fuel ratio, fuel type, RPM, and engine
temperature. Once you start swapping cylinder heads or adding mods, engine conditions change. Adjusting the ignition
timing can help improve performance and give you more horsepower.
Advancing the ignition timing means you spark earlier than normal, while a retard ignition timing sparks later. Be
careful of firing the spark too early as it can cause engine knock. Firing too late can result in a loss of power and
potential engine damage. If done properly, tuning the ignition timing can lead to power gains.
To tune the ignition timing, you usually want to hook up to a dynamometer so you know how much power you're producing. The dynamometer will help you determine what effect your ignition timing changes are having on horsepower.
Manufacturers use governors to limit the top speed of your vehicle for safety reasons. You can remove the speed limiter
through flashing if you need to increase the top speed. Obviously driving over the speed limit on the road is illegal,
so it’s more for racing purposes than everyday driving.
Carmakers also use safe rev limits to prevent the chance of engine failure. If your car has a safe rev limit, you can
use a tuner to raise it. This is useful if you’ve installed an upgraded camshaft or valves that improve airflow at
Finding the Best Tuner for Your Car
Not all tuners are created equal, so finding the right tuner for your vehicle is important. Be sure to check out the
software and see if it makes your desired changes. If you aren’t sure where to start, forums are a good place to find
information on what tuners work best for your specific car and mods. Mustang owners can check out our tuner guide for
It’s important to be patient when tuning your car. Make small, incremental changes and gauge the response to ensure
everything is working correctly. If something isn’t working as it should, do some more research before you continue to
make adjustments. Tuning is complex, so you might need professional help if you don’t have any prior experience.
Sources: Performance Engine Tuning, EngineBuilder | ECU Chip Tune-How To Increase Horsepower, Engineering Explained | Tuning: How It Works, Donut Media | HP Tuners 101: The Basics, Tuning Series Vol. 1, Goat Rope Garage
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